Half of the UK's population cannot see many stars because the night skies are still "saturated" with light pollution, campaigners have warned.
Some 53% of those who joined a recent star count failed to see more than 10 stars in the Orion constellation.
That had decreased only very slightly from 54% since 2007, the Campaign to Protect Rural England and the Campaign for Dark Skies said.
The problem remained despite attempts to curb street lighting, they said.
They said that in 2010, local authorities collectively spent more than £500m on street lighting, accounting for 5% to 10% of each council's carbon emissions.
A number of councils have tested schemes to switch off or dim street lights when they are not needed, although the trials have often proved controversial with residents.
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